6 Common Foot and Ankle Problems

Ankle and foot pain may result from a variety of things, including fractures, strains, sprains, overuse, and arthritis. Damage done to the ankle and foot can lead to debilitating pain and discomfort and hinder your ability to perform daily activities. Here are six common foot and ankle problems that we treat at Jaffe Sports Medicine daily.


Common Foot Problems:

Plantar Fasciitis

If you have problems with pain that forms at the bottom of the heel and travels to the arch, you may have Plantar Fasciitis.

Plantar Fasciitis occurs as the foot rolls inward or pronates more than it should. You may notice the pain is worse after prolonged walking, standing, or exercising. But we also hear our patients notice stiffness and severe foot pain after their first steps out of bed in the morning.

When you visit Jaffe Sports Medicine with this type of pain, we may take X-Rays to rule out any other possible causes for your foot pain and confirm a diagnosis.

Treatment options vary with how severe the pain is and the course of a carefully followed treatment plan that we will create for you. Treatment may include orthotic inserts for your shoes to correct the pronation, as well as physical therapy.

We recommend always wearing a good supportive shoe and stretching the foot before taking your first steps each day. By doing these things, Plantar Fasciitis pain will ease over time.


If you’re experiencing pain and deformity of your big toes, and possibly even the second or third toe, check your feet. If your toe bends downward at the middle joint, you may have a hammertoe. And your poorly fitted footwear or high-heeled shoes are likely to blame.

Hammertoe occurs when your feet do not have enough room to spread out. The toes become bent into an abnormal position and create a “hammer” head appearance.

A change in footwear to something roomier is recommended, as will the aide of an insert to correct the deformity. If, after time, these standard treatment methods do not fix the problem, the toe or toes will require surgery on the toe to straighten and correct the deformity.

We can also recommend toe exercises to perform that will help strengthen and hopefully correct the problem.


Bunions look like a large bump on the side of the large toe. Bunions are painful because they happen when the bones of the big toe become misaligned.

The misalignment occurs over time and is caused by wearing tight, narrow shoes that squeeze the toes together in an unnatural position. Bunions are commonly seen in patient’s feet that roll inward and affect more women than men. Jaffe Sports Medicine will order an X-Ray of the affected foot to confirm a diagnosis. X-rays are typically taken from a standing position, which is the best position, and will reveal how severe the bunion is.

There are non-surgical options available to you for treating a bunion. They include changing the shoe you wear to a wide fit and proper support in the big toe. We can also recommend using a shield to protect the area where the bunion rests in the shoe.

If pain persists and you have no relief from a wider shoe and toe box, we will discuss surgical options. But keep in mind, the recovery can be longer since your foot is a weight-bearing extremity.


Common Ankle Problems:

Ankle Sprain

The ankle is a powerhouse joint that keeps us moving. An ankle injury is never a pleasant experience. When an ankle is sprained, the strong ligament is stretched beyond its limit. The same ligament connects the bones and holds the ankle in a stable position to support the movement.

The pain will range with the severity of the sprain. We at Jaffe Sports Medicine see some ankle sprains are minor and can be tended to with ice therapy, elevation, and rest. But we also notice more severe cases of swelling, pain, and those who cannot put any weight on the foot. In those cases, we determine if the care will be more long-term with problems like instability.

There is a grading system associated with sprains that range from mild—meaning a slight stretch; to severe—a complete tear. At-home care includes rest and ice first. Later, we will have patients begin incorporating a light range of motion activities and building strength until the flexibility and strength begin to return.

We will work closely with you to determine the course of your ankle treatment while your healing progresses.


Arthritis of the ankle can be diagnosed as Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Posttraumatic Arthritis. Each type of arthritis is lasting in form, which means you should be mindful that pain and inflammation will always affect your ankle.

With that said, you may have better days with no pain but may also have days with symptoms such as:

  • Pain with movement, including walking
  • Swelling and tenderness after activity or weather changes
  • Warmth and redness
  • increased pain and stiffness in the morning after rising from sleep

Treatment options vary with the severity of your ankle impairment. Still, they can range anywhere from physical therapy exercises you can complete at home to surgery for advanced arthritis of the ankle and ankle joint surfaces

If you experience ankle pain daily, we can help. Call Jaffe Sports Medicine to assess your ankle, and we will create a treatment plan that will help you get back better movement.

Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles tendonitis pain can be severe and will begin at the back of the leg and radiate to the heel. This problem is common in athletes, runners, and even speed walkers, resulting from a breakdown of tissues caused by overuse. The tendon itself is the largest tendon in the human body, but it is also the most frequently ruptured of all tendons.

With severe symptoms such as pain with associated swelling, you should call Jaffe Sports Medicine for immediate treatment. An MRI or ultrasound will determine the extent of your Achilles injury. After diagnosis, we can determine how to proceed with your treatment plan.

To get the best results and heal properly, you will need a suitable bandage or ankle wrap to restrict the range of motion, such as an air cast. We will assign regular stretching and message as your treatment to regain motion and movement in the affected heel/ankle.

With time and rest, you will be able to return to activity once healing progresses. However, you will not be able to return to strenuous activity while recovering, such as running, hill climbing, etc. We will recommend swimming or using a rowing machine to stay fit while resting your injury.

Our doctors and therapists will work one-on-one with each patient to ensure that their treatment goals are met. We have the experience to investigate and treat your specific pain condition. Contact us to schedule an appointment to examine your foot and ankle pain.



Understanding Migraine Headaches

From diagnosis to treatment, how to cope with the chronic nature of migraine headaches

Migraines are unpredictable. They can be triggered by bright and flashing lights, strong odors or scents, heat, extreme cold, poorly ventilated rooms, and noise.

Anyone who suffers from migraine headaches will agree that this type of head pain is not like a typical headache. A migraine can stop ones daily routine for a day or more when the pain strikes, despite medication or natural remedies administered to the patient.

Migraines are one of the most diagnosed illnesses associated with pain. But how do you know you suffer from a migraine and not just an ordinary headache? It would help if you understood the stages of a migraine and the various treatments available for you at Jaffe Sports Medicine.


Types of Headaches

Chronic headaches are not always considered migraines. Instead, the type of headache you have is determined by the associated symptoms and where the pain is located. Types of headaches range from a migraine headache, cluster headaches, tension headaches, and common cold or sinus headaches.

If you have widespread head pain, some neck pain, and the pain is considered a 5-6/10 on a rating scale, the headache is likely associated with tension. If you have not experienced visual disturbance, nausea, vomiting, or light sensitivity, the headache is probably a tension headache and will go away in an hour or two.

If your eyes are red and watery, or you’re experiencing facial pain, you could be having a typical sinus headache. The sinus headache symptoms can often mirror a cluster headache; however, with a cluster headache the pain is moderate to severe and lasts longer.

Head pain caused by a sinus headaches tension headache  is annoying and feels dreadful, but often, the pain is quickly relieved with an over-the-counter headache remedy. However, if you experience the stages below, it’s safe to assume you have a migraine headache.


Stages of a Migraine

Migraines are often associated with warning symptoms leading up to the attack. With a migraine, the nature of the headache will include stages. These stages may or may not produce pain. The symptoms are varied and can range from mild mood swings to severe and debilitating pain, which almost always lasts from 24 to 72 hours.

Prodrome: Migraine symptoms may begin suddenly or over one or two days leading up to the headache. The symptoms of onset in the prodrome stage will include changes in mood, fatigue, neck pain, and sometimes food cravings.

Aura: The aura stage will include tingling sensations in the arms and legs and sometimes facial areas, as well as the inability to gather thoughts or speak in complete sentences.

You may also notice visual disturbances called “floaters,” which can severely affect the ability to see for a long time. Just know these floaters will subside, and you will have no problems with vision once the migraine has run its course. We understand that there may or may not be head pain associated with the aura stage, depending on how quickly the migraine progresses.

Attack: The attack stage is when the actual pain occurs. Along with pain, you can expect nausea, vomiting, possible fainting, and throbbing head pain. Our patients often describe that they will need to lie down in a dark room with no sounds or light until the pain subsides once the headache begins. The pain/attack phase can last several hours but the duration is often reliant on if you have taken medication to relieve pain.

Recovery: Once the pain subsides, you will likely feel fatigued, despite the numerous hours you may have slept. The recovery stage can last up to 48 hours. After that, you will slowly regain strength, and your functions will feel more restored.


Treatment Options

There are many treatment options available for those who suffer from diagnosed chronic migraines.

Medications are available to treat migraines once they occur, and some are even available to prevent migraines from occurring. In addition to these medications, Botox injections have been helpful for patients and some antipsychotic medications.

For those who prefer a more holistic approach, supplements such as magnesium, Butterbur, CoQ10, and Feverfew have been noted to help prevent migraines. In addition to supplements, practicing the methods of stress management, better dietary choices, and yoga are effective treatment options.

Other options include acupuncture and physical therapy that promotes progressive muscle relaxation techniques that Jaffee Sports Medicine can prescribe for you.

At Jaffe Sports Medicine, our physicians will perform an initial evaluation before beginning treatment for your chronic headaches to determine what methods to use for your headache relief. Our multidisciplinary medical center is comprised of experienced and caring doctors that provide the best care in head pain relief. With the most advanced diagnostic and therapeutic tools currently available, our medical professionals can analyze your headache and find the best course of action to improve and relieve your pain and discomfort.


Common Knee Injuries and Treatment Options

You should never ignore knee pain, but how do you know if you have an injured knee or if the pain you’re experiencing typical pain from overuse?

A good rule to follow is if you’re experiencing swelling and pain, or if you know you’ve injured your knee by falling or playing sports, it’s time for a medical evaluation. If left untreated, the injury will continue producing a nagging pain likely to intensify over time, leading to worsening symptoms, like loss of motion and an affected gait.

The reality is that all your weight rests on two very vital joints for good mobility—your ankles and knees. So, any amount of stress on these joints can adversely affect your mobility. Here are three common knee injuries that we encounter daily at Jaffe Sports Medicine. They are by no means the only injuries you can face, but please read on to learn more and contact us for an evaluation if you believe we can help your knee pain.



Tendinitis is a painful condition that occurs when the connective tissues between your muscles and bones (tendons) become inflamed. Knee tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendon that connects your patella to your tibia.

Tendonitis of the knee is a frequent injury among athletes who tend to jump frequently, such as basketball players, tennis players, cheerleaders, and downhill skiers. However, you do not need to have ever been an athlete to have such an injury.

Injury is often due to overuse or repetitive stress on the knee, which creates tiny tears in the tendon. Over time, the tendon becomes inflamed, eventually weakening the muscle and causing knee pain. In addition, we see tendonitis in careers that require a repetitive type of motion or require heavy exertions continually.

The most common symptom of knee tendonitis is pain, which may be a gradual onset or come on suddenly and severe, especially if calcium deposits are present.

Treatment options for tendonitis are vast. We will work with conservative measures to treat the first, which include physical therapy. We will also try Cortisone Injections in the knee, which often will provide comfort for several months and allow time to rest the knee. Surgery is rarely needed and only for severe problems that do not respond to other treatments.

Just keep in mind that It takes longer for a tendon to heal than for other soft tissues to heal, so be patient while you’re healing. Also, remember that if you do not respect the healing process, the injury could become worse and take much longer to heal.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries (ACL)

An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A tear may be partial or complete.

They occur when one of the four main ligaments in the knee, called the ACL, tears, leaving the knee less stable. The ACL is one of four ligaments that connect the thighbone (femur) to the tibia (shin). These ligaments are what give the knee and leg flexibility and allow them to move quickly.

The most common sign and symptoms you have injured your ACL are you may hear a “popping” sound, followed by pain and sudden weakness in or about the knee. Chances are, you will require a professional evaluation as soon as possible.

An ACL injury occurs due to rapid direction changes, improper landing from jumps, and collision in the knee with others. Though we do see these injuries in athletes frequently, they can still occur in everyday settings.

Examples are exertions such as gym workouts and working in a fast-paced and repetitive environment. Certain players of sports also run high risks of ACL injuries, such as football, basketball, soccer, hockey, tennis, and cheerleading.

If you have problems with your ACL, you will immediately have trouble walking and reduced mobility noted in your range of motion in the affected knee. You will also experience pain and swelling after the injury occurs. You will also experience tenderness along the joint.

Treatment options for ACL injuries depend on the extent of the injury. Not all ACL injuries require surgery. However, we will consider the scope of the damage and discuss the best treatment option for you. Jaffe Sports Medicine always recommends physical therapy after an ACL repair has been performed.


Meniscal Tears

The meniscus is the cartilage the fits between the femur and tibia and acts as the knee’s shock absorbers. This cartilage allows the knee joint to glide smoothly and distribute the forces within the knee during exertions. Unfortunately, the meniscus can tear due to a sports-related injury or due to degenerative joint disease, with a gradual onset of symptoms and loss of motion.

Like the ACL, an injury may coincide with a “popping” sound and immediate pain and swelling. In cases of degenerative tears, you should describe what you hear or feel, such as a clicking, catching, or locking of the knee.

Surgery may be required, depending on the extent of the injury and severity of the meniscus tear.

You cannot help certain conditions through non-surgical solutions. Jaffe Sports Medicine is proud to offer a complete array of medical services to aid in treating a multitude of pain conditions and injuries. In addition, our orthopedic surgery options provide solutions for patients dealing with musculoskeletal disorders.

We perform the following surgical procedures at Jaffe Sports Medicine:

  • Operative and Non-operative treatment of shoulder, knee, elbow, wrist, and ankle pain
  • Operative and non-operative treatment of arthritis
  • Outpatient Total Shoulder Replacement
  • Outpatient Minimally Invasive Total Knee Replacement
  • Outpatient Robotic Partial Knee Replacement
  • Outpatient Minimally Invasive Partial Knee Replacement
  • Advanced Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery (Rotator Cuff Repair, Instability and Labral Repair)
  • Advanced Arthroscopic Knee Surgery (Meniscal Repair and ACL Reconstruction, Including “No Incision” Or All Inside Reconstruction)
  • Arthroscopic Ankle, Elbow and Wrist Surgery
  • Bone Fracture Care and Surgery
  • Treatment of All Athletic Injuries
  • Minimally Invasive Techniques


4 Ways Physical Therapy Can Help Your Recovery

With every strain and sprain is a recovery period, and physical therapy is often the pathway to recovery.

If your strain or sprain is not a persistent problem or a possible reinjured impairment, healing can be achieved with at-home therapy and rest. However, if you are experiencing constant pain, swelling, immobility in the affected area, you will need to be evaluated for a possible deeper problem.

In a situation of injury or post-surgery, physical therapy is the prescribed method for regaining your motion and restoring balance to your body. These are the four most significant benefits of physical therapy.

No Pain No Gain

Did you know that by performing physical motions that you can prevent the need for surgery at times? We know the old saying “no pain no gain” is a cliché, but sometimes surgical intervention can be avoided by going through the painful motion of physical therapy first.

You may hear your doctor mention the term “conservative treatment,” which means your doctor wants to try the first option, physical therapy, to help reduce pain and regain the affected region’s mobility. Perhaps there will be no need for surgery.

Of course, we understand there are circumstances when conservative treatment will not work, and you will need surgery regardless. We will be here for you when you are ready to start the process of physical therapy.

Practicing Stretching Techniques

We know it is not easy stretching the pain away, but we also know that stretching is the best medicine to restore motion to your joints and muscles in small doses. These small doses will ultimately become motions that build strength and endurance.

Consider this—after surgery or an injury, rest is necessary. However, if you continue to rest the injury, scar tissue begins to form like cobwebs and soft tissue contracts.

Stretching regularity will knock down the cobwebs and get you back in action. So, if you want to restore the range of motion or maintain a good range of motion, you must make a regular habit of keeping your muscles and tissues loose.

When you make good habits of stretching, you ensure that scar formations do not hold you back. Practice makes perfect, so be sure to practice the stretching technique at home that one of our PT specialists or doctors has prescribed for you.

Training for Strength

To strengthen your beautiful bones, you must strengthen the muscle and tissues around the bone, which is especially true as you age.

Strength exercises will help improve your muscle’s function and improve strength, endurance, and help you achieve a better range of motion.

We will work together to strengthen your core, which is essential for building strength in the back and pelvis. The core is also the heartbeat of balance.

If you have had surgery or are working with an injury, our doctors work with the physical therapy team to create a physical therapy program for you. Each program assesses your current ability and sets an ultimate end goal for you.

Improve Balance and Prevent Falls

Several injuries can prevent good balance, including leg, hips, pelvis, back, knees, ankles, and feet. Poor balance and fall risk can also occur from muscle weakness, sedentary lifestyle, sitting at a desk working all day, aging, and joint stiffness.

Good posture is paramount in keeping good balance; however, maintaining a stable and upright position when standing, walking, and even sitting can be problematic for older people or people with injuries.

We will assess your posture and teach you exercises to improve your ability to maintain proper posture.

Our physical therapist will prescribe active movement techniques and exercises to help your affected body system. We will also discuss hazards in your home that increase your risk of balance problems are falling, such as a throw rug, poor lighting, or an unrestrained pet, or other possible objects.

By learning the technique and importance of good posture and strengthening the appropriate muscles, we can help you achieve better balance and prevent falls.

Our physical therapists work individually with each patient to ensure that your health and wellness goals are met. At Jaffe Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, we help our patients recover quickly, regain strength, and improve their range of motion while avoiding painful, expensive surgery.

To schedule an appointment with our physical therapists or sport medicine therapists, contact Jaffe Sports Medicine today.


Jaffe Sports Medicine Welcomes Doctor Chaturani Ranasinghe

Doctor Chaturani Ranasinghe Jaffe Sports Medicine is pleased to introduce our newest team member, Dr. Chaturani Ranasinghe, a Double Board-Certified Anesthesiologist and Interventional Pain Medicine physician. Dr. Ranasinghe graduated from the University of Miami School of Medicine in 2006 and completed a residency in Anesthesiology at Jackson Memorial Hospital with the University of Miami.

Dr. Ranasinghe will serve our patients at Jaffe Sports Medicine with abackground that includes the completion of one of the country’s highest-rated pain programs,at the prestigious New York University Medical Center, where she was trained by top experts exclusively in the field of pain medicine. Upon completing herfellowship, she practiced as a faculty member at both NYU and the University of Miami, at the Pain Institute, while also serving as the Director of the Wellness Center in the Department of Anesthesiology.

She was appointed as the Director of the Pain Medicine fellowship at the university and was an enthusiastic and inspiring educator, teaching future pain doctors that pain medicine is as much an art as it is a highly trained skill.

Dr. Ranasinghe comes to Jaffe Sports Medicine as not only a highly trained and informed doctor, but also with a passion for treating patient while practicing alternative options for patients with pain specific needs.

Alternative Medicine

Dr. Ranasinghe is educated and experienced in all aspects of pain management, including the entire range of pain management procedures. However, she noticed a trend in her patient’s request for more holistic pain relief options.

Alternative treatment for pain can include acupuncture, herbal remedies, massage, aromatherapy, spinal manipulation, and many other forms of alternative pain therapy. These forms are used when a patient is unable to treat pain with medication for personal or other health related reasons, as well as patient preference.  As with traditional approaches to treating pain, alternative approaches require the best knowledge and safety practices adhered to by the treating physicians.  With an academic focus, she made it a point to gather the available literature and evidence for all treatments.

Dr. Ranasinghe took it upon herself to learn and utilize acupuncture in her treatments and incorporated other alternative healing methods into managing pain. In doing so, shecan now providefor more treatment options during an assessment of each patient.

She is an active member of the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, an internationally renowned institution that promotes alternative and Western modalities in a patient-centric model. With her knowledge in advanced medicine, she will be a vital asset to Jaffe Sports Medicine and our patients.

Please request a consultation or make an appointment to see Dr. Ranasinghe today at Jaffe Sports Medicine.

Treating Spinal Fractures with Kyphoplasty

Jaffe Sports Medicine is pleased to offer a minimally invasive procedure for our patients who experience severe back pain or spinal deformities. Pain and deformities can occur due to a number of possible diagnoses, including cancer or osteoporosis. With imaging and further testing, we can begin to evaluate your condition and determine if you are a possible candidate for kyphoplasty.

Diagnosis and Surgical Factors

Before learning more about kyphoplasty, it is important to know what conditions and diagnoses are associated with this type of surgery. Most common are diagnoses such as osteoporosis and spinal tumors associated with certain cancers.

Osteoporosis is the loss of calcium from bones, which results in weakened bone structures throughout the body. In some patients, osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures of the vertebra.

When the vertebral body is fractured, there will be a noticeable collapse occurring at the Thoracic Spine, thus producing a wedge; more familiarly known as a “hunch-back” appearance. What is happening here is the vertebral body is shortened in height and spinal alignment is then shifted.

There are additional serious health problems that are associated with this type of curvature, including chronic and severe pain, reduced mobility, and reduced lung capacity. Osteo fractures such as this make it five times more likely further fractures will occur.

Though osteoporosis is the most common cause in fractured vertebral bodies, cancer with associated spinal tumors can also cause fractures that lead to the need for corrective measures.

As the tumor(s) grow, the fractures occur. The tumor will of course require treatment and/or removal, however, Kyphoplasty is a viable option for treating the fracture and preventing further injury to the vertebral body.

Understanding the Kyphoplasty procedure and the benefits.

Kyphoplasty, also known as vertebral augmentation, is a minimally invasive surgical procedure for treating osteoporosis fractures. As discussed, these fractures may occur because of conditions such as osteoporosis or trauma.

Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that includes injecting acrylic bone cement into the spinal fracture through a hole in the skin. The cement-like materials are injected directly into the fractured bone with a needle or thin tube. The cement works to stabilize the fracture, which provides immediate pain relief in many cases.

To be more specific, the needle or thin tube, once inserted into the damaged vertebrae, is tipped with a balloon. The balloon is inflated to create a cavity in which bone cement will be injected.

The balloon is deflated and removed, and the bone cement is then injected into the cavity. The cement mixture hardens in about 10 minutes. The entire procedure will probably take less than an hour, though it may be longer if more vertebrae are treated. Your doctor will use your X-ray as guidance while performing the procedure to ensure accuracy.

You will be under general anesthesia throughout this minimally invasive procedure.

Afterward, you may experience soreness in the area for a few days, but you will likely be symptom-free and will not need to do physical therapy or rehabilitation. You will spend some time in recovery after the surgery, however, you will likely go home the same day, but will need someone to drive you home. The risks of kyphoplasty are exceptionally low.

Who is a candidate for Kyphoplasty?

To be a candidate for kyphoplasty, your pain must be related to the vertebral fracture, and must not be due to any other problems such as disc herniation, arthritis, or stenosis, which is narrowing of the spinal cord.

We feel the best candidates are generally reserved for people with painful, progressive, and increasing back pain caused by osteoporosis, or pathologic vertebral compression fractures. These candidates will also have a reduced ability to move and function because of the fractures. Limitations can include the inability to drive, perform daily tasks such as household chores and cooking, caring for yourself, or your family members.

Like any surgery, there are associated risks, such as infection, bleeding, increased back pain, tingling, numbness or weakness because of nerve damage, allergic reactions to the chemicals used with X Rays to help guide the doctor, cement leaking out of position.

Pre and Post Operative Procedures 

Before the day of your surgery, your physician will perform an exam and will obtain current imaging of the spinal column. You will discuss any recent illnesses and talk about any allergies you may have.

Do not forget to bring with you a list of the medications you are currently taking and discuss with your doctor in the weeks before surgery if you are taking blood thinners or aspirin for a directive, as you will need to stop taking these before the surgery. Do not eat or drink anything up to 8 hours before surgery.

Following the successful kyphoplasty procedure, you can return home to normal activities. Please try to avoid heavy lifting for up to six weeks following the surgery. As previously mentioned, any pain caused by the procedure itself should be gone within two to three days.

Kyphoplasty helps correct bone deformities and relieves pain that comes with spinal compression fractures. kyphoplasty can restore damaged vertebrae and may also relieve pain by injecting a special cement into your vertebrae to provide our patients with relief.

Call us today to make an appointment and let’s begin your evaluation to resolve your back pain.